SYNOPSIS

This chapter is tying the 14th through the 19th centuries together. Through the Renaissance, to the Reformation, to the Enlightenment, then the Scientific Revolution, and lastly the Industrial Revolution, many motives for the past, present, and future global economy was set. Certain events and people in each of these periods influenced the others to happen.

HISTORY

The Renaissance began this time. It was a cultural movement that encompassed a rebellion of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.It was viewed as a bridge between the middle ages and the modern era. It saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits as well as social and political upheaval, but it is best known for its artistic developments and contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michel Angelo, who inspired the term Renaissance man. Leonardo was actually the main person to influence the "Renaissance Man." Renaissance Man means ' person who excels in many things.' Leonardo was an Italian polymath, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled only by his powers of invention. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. Helen Gardner says "The scope and depth of his interests were without precedent...His mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote".(**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci**) He conceptualized a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, the double hull and outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. As a scientist, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics. These ideas actually held the beginning influences of the Scientific Revolution and Industrial Revolution.

This lead to the Reformation, which was a fracturing of the Christian church into competing denominations. The first result was that of the writings of the great church reformers Calvin and Luther. They challenged abuses and the Catholic church, translated the Bible into the Vernacular, and encouraged different interpretations of the meaning of religious texts and organization of churches. The second result was the development of modern political philosophy and the writings of Machiavelli and More. The last result was because of the religious wars that followed the Reformation. It forced thinkers to question the proper authority of the church and the king and forced true believers to find courage and challenge status quo.

During all of this, the Enlightenment(also known as the Age of Reason) was occurring. The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700's. The intellectual and philosophical developments of this age aspired toward more freedom for common people based on self-governance, natural rights, natural law, central emphasis on liberty, individual rights, reason, and the principles of deism.

There are many items of evidence that the Reformation had a profound effect and became a major source for Enlightenment thinking. If nothing else, the Reformation gave permission to individuals to think outside the religious box that had reigned in any intellectual thought that actually or was perceived to disagree with religious ideas and values.

The Scientific Revolution was a period when new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences that led to a rejection of the doctrines that had prevailed from Ancient Greece through the Middle Ages, and laid the foundation of modern science. This Revolution began with the publication of two works that changed the course of science in 1543 and continued through the late 17th century. The science of the late Renaissance was significant in establishing a base for many modern sciences. J.D. Bernal said " The Renaissance enabled a scientific Revolution which let scholars look at the world in a different light. Religion, superstition, and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge."
HERE ARE SOME ADVANCES MADE BY LEONARDO DA VINCI:
external image 180px-Studies_of_the_Arm_showing_the_Movements_made_by_the_Biceps.jpgANATOMY external image 180px-Design_for_a_Flying_Machine.jpgFLYING MACHINE external image 180px-Da_Vinci_Studies_of_Embryos_Luc_Viatour.jpgThe WOMB
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci

This led to the Industrial Revolution. More than the greatest gains of the Renaissance, the Reformation, Scientific Revolution or Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution implied that man now had not only the opportunity and the knowledge but the physical means to completely subdue nature. No other revolution in modern times can be said to have accomplished so much in so little time. *But the Industrial Revolution really could not have existed if it were not for the Scientific Revolution.* The Industrial Revolution attempted to effect man's mastery over nature. This was an old vision, a vision with a history. In the 17th century, the English statesman and "Father of Modern Science, Francis Bacon, believed that natural philosophy could be applied to the solution of practical problems, and so, the idea of modern technology was born. For Bacon, the problem was this: how could man enjoy perfect freedom if he had to constantly labor to supply the necessities of existence? His answer was clear -- machines. These labor saving devices would liberate mankind, they would save labor which then could be utilized elsewhere. "Knowledge is power," said Bacon, and scientific knowledge reveals power over nature.

GLOBAL ECONOMY : PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

All of these events set the motives for today's Global Economy ....................................


RENAISSANCE

The Renaissance was an incredibly important turning point in Western Intellectual and Cultural Tradition. All of these changes
centered around the idea of Humanism -- in which, people became less "God Centered" and more "Human-centered". The great changes in Education of the Renaissance were inspired at first, by the desire of Humanists to be wise and to speak eloquently. The idea of useful education for the people, and very "well rounded" schooling in many different fields of learning were the new defined goals of Renaissance education. People all over revived the Ancient Greek studies of Plato, Aristotle, and many others. People began seriously questioning what these people said and re-developed the "Scientific Theory" in which you didn't just accept whatever was said to you, but you tested the truth of it.

In the area of Humanism and the Arts, Renaissance Artists no longer were subordinate to the interests and the values of the Clergy, and were able to create anything of their "artistic will". Both men and women were now able to appreciated arts beyond just religious themes. Artists could also now take advantage of new techniques, such as oil painting and linear perspective to enhance the quality of their works.
As you can see, the Renaissance was to great extent a major turning point in history from the Middle Ages in just about every element of the society. The Renaissance has truly become the original roots of our culture from the West. This was was the time when people questioned the past, and decided to go back to the schools of learning taking the past of the Greeks into their present to make a better future.

REFORMATION

The European world of sixteenth century had encountered revolutionary changes in its society and its obstinate Christian religion. By this time the Catholic Church was extremely corrupted that its spiritual leaders, the popes were far away from their religion and holy duty, and did nothing but indulging themselves in fortune and fame. Consequently the literate people such as humanists in the society and Protestants, who felt their religion has become wrong and pathetic, thought of and aroused the reformation. There were huge radical movements of those people to reform their Christian society and religion all around the European territories; secularization, which is the process of converting from religious to civil that develops a variety of activities outside the sphere of religion has appeared. There are intellectual, political, and religious factors that inspired the religious revolution. As economy of the European world has grown, trade with other countries occurred. Merchants earned a great amount of money and formed the new middle class. These rich people had enough money to teach their children and also the children had to learn to keep the industry.

ALSO, The Reformation had led to a series of violent and cruel wars of religions; states erupted into civil war and thousands of innocents met their deaths in the name of national religions. Absolute monarchies were originally proposed as a solution to these violent disorders, and Europeans were more than willing to have local autonomy taken away in exchange for peace and safety.



ENLIGHTENMENT

The Enlightenment allowed people to see the world or universe in a different light( "big picture" ). Also, there was the ability to receive answer on your own terms and no one else's. Another effect would be the freedom from fears and the embracing of peace in its purest form.This allowed an open mind and more things to be created. Plus, more ideas were discovered. Every time something new was discovered it led to more ideas and creations.

A variety of 20th century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, traced their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment, and away from the purported emotionalism of the 19th century. Geometric order, rigor and reductionism were seen as Enlightenment virtues. The modern movement points to reductionism and rationality as crucial aspects of Enlightenment thinking, of which it is the heir, as opposed to irrationality and emotionalism. In this view, the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance.

This view asserts that the Enlightenment was the point when Europe broke through what historian Peter Gay calls "the sacred circle," whose dogma had circumscribed thinking. The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy and reason as primary values of society. This view argues that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance, and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means. In this view, the tendency of the philosophies in particular to apply rationality to every problem is considered the essential change. From this point on, thinkers and writers were held to be free to pursue the truth in whatever form, without the threat of sanction for violating established ideas.

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

The Scientific Revolution brought on new thoughts and ideas in many areas. The past Global Economy began looking at things with reason and knowledge. This revolution let the present global economy have the ability of medicine and healing, knowledge of the outer places of this world, and many areas in physics which gave us faster, advanced mobility, etc. Advances and new theories are being made and tested everyday. The future will become far more advanced.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The industrial revolution certainly saw some dramatic changes in the economy and society of Britain. There was a huge increase in the numbers of people employed in industrial manufacturing, making goods of all kinds, but especially textiles, iron goods, metal wares and pottery, for both overseas and domestic markets. http://www.ehs.org.uk/industrialrevolution/PH_index.htmIt

PAST : It all started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fueled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries.

PRESENT : The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.
The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850. The Industrial Revolution has changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centers requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life and made the urban worker more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been. Doctrines of laissez-faire sought to maximize the use of new productive facilities. But the revolution also brought a need for a new type of state intervention to protect the laborer and to provide necessary services. Laissez faire gradually gave way in the United States, Britain, and elsewhere to welfare capitalism. The Industrial Revolution also provided the economic base for the rise of the professions, population expansion, and improvement in living standards and remains a primary goal of less developed nations.
It also has had some negative effects. Ever since the 19th century many industrial revolutions have been made: more machines going to work and more trees being cut down. These machines give off greenhouse emissions causing the greenhouse effect.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

How does the Western mode of linear-thinking adopted during the Renaissance compare with Eastern forms of thought?
WESTERN :The philosophy of a period arises as a response to social need, and the development of philosophy in the history of Western civilization since the Renaissance has, thus, reflected the process in which creative philosophers have responded to the unique challenges of each stage in the development of Western culture itself. The career of philosophy—how it views its tasks and functions, how it defines itself, the special methods it invents for the achievement of philosophical knowledge, the literary forms it adopts and utilizes, its conception of the scope of its subject matter, and its changing criteria of meaning and truth—hinges on the mode of its successive responses to the challenges of the social structure within which it arises. Thus, Western philosophy in the Middle Ages was primarily a Christian philosophy, complementing the divine revelation, reflecting the feudal order in its cosmology, devoting itself in no small measure to the institutional tasks of the Roman Catholic Church.

EASTERN:Eastern thought, at least since the rise of European influence in Asia, is often associated with philosophy in the Western sense, especially in certain Asian academic circles. However, before the global influence of European and American technological and scientific education, the idea of philosophy as rigorous science is not found in traditional Eastern writings, which are for the most part religious and mythical. In our own time some Western trained linguists have sought to use novel translation methods to make Eastern thought resemble Western philosophy, especially the influential Marxist-Leninist tradition.
It has been argued that in most Western philosophies, the same can be said of the individual: Many Western philosophers generally assume as a given that the individual is something distinct from the entire universe, and many Western philosophers attempt to describe and categorize the universe from a detached, objective viewpoint. Eastern religions, on the other hand, typically hold that people are an intrinsic and inseparable part of the universe

How do these alternate modes explain differences in economic and political philosophies?
WESTERN:Western political philosophy has its origins in ancient Greek society, when city-states were experimenting with various forms of political organization including monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy.One of the most influential works during this burgeoning period was Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, written between 1511-12 and published in 1532, after Machiavelli's death. That work, as well as The Discourses, a rigorous analysis of the classical period, did much to influence modern political thought in the West.

EASTERN: Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking. It had much in common with the Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics also subordinated philosophy to theology. Perhaps the most influential political philosopher of medieval Europe was St. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle's works, which had only been preserved by the Muslims, along with the commentaries of Averroes. Aquinas's use of them set the agenda for scholastic political philosophy, dominated European thought for centuries.

What are practical manifestations of these philosophically different viewpoints?
We have a democracy today. Greek cities were experimenting with many political organizations, one of which was Democracy .
ROMAN CATHOLICS: It operates social programs and institutions throughout the world, including schools, universities, hospitals, missions and shelters, as well as organizations such as Catholic Relief Services, Caritas Internationalis and Catholic Charities that help the poor, families, the elderly and the sick.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, law, justice, validity, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing these questions by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on reasoned argument.

Theology is the study and commentary on the existence and attributes of a god or gods, and of how that god or those gods relate to the world and, especially, to human existence and religious thought; more generally, it is the study of religious faith, practice, and experience, or of spirituality. It is sometimes contrasted with religious studies: theology is understood as the study of religion from an internal perspective (e.g., a perspective of commitment to that religion), and religious studies as the study of religion from an external perspective.


END SYNOPSIS/Documentary

The way our global economy is today has gone through many events, movements, and difficulties in the past. One such event was the Intellectual Revolution which included the Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution, and Industrial Revolution. The Reformation had led to a series of violent and cruel wars of religions; states erupted into civil war and thousands of innocents met their deaths in the name of national religions. Absolute monarchies were originally proposed as a solution to these violent disorders, and Europeans were more than willing to have local autonomy taken away in exchange for peace and safety.
There were huge radical movements of people to reform their Christian society and religion all around the European territories; secularization, which is the process of converting from religious to civil that develops a variety of activities outside the sphere of religion had appeared. As economy of the European world has grown, trade with other countries occurred. Merchants earned a great amount of money and formed the new middle class.This time ran parallel with the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment allowed people to see the world or universe in a different light. Another effect would be the freedom from fears and the embracing of peace in its purest form.This allowed an open mind and more things to be created. Plus, more ideas were discovered. Every time something new was discovered it led to more ideas and creations.
A variety of 20th century movements traced their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. Geometric order, rigor, and reductionism were seen as Enlightenment virtues. The modern movement points to reductionism and rationality as crucial aspects of Enlightenment thinking as opposed to irrationality and emotionalism. In this view, the Enlightenment represents the basis for modern ideas of liberalism against superstition and intolerance.
The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy and reason as primary values of society. This view argues that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance, and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means. In this view, the tendency of the philosophies in particular to apply rationality to every problem is considered the essential change. From this point on, thinkers and writers were held to be free to pursue the truth in whatever form. The open minds and thoughts led to the Scientific Revolution where new inventions were being created.
The Scientific Revolution brought on new thoughts and ideas in many areas. The past Global Economy began looking at things with reason and knowledge. This revolution let the present global economy have the ability of medicine and healing, knowledge of the outer places of this world and many areas in physics which gave us faster advanced mobility. Scientific knowledge enables other areas of work and the creaters to have the ability to create. This is how the Industrial Revolution began.
It all started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fueled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.
The Industrial Revolution has changed the face of nations, giving rise to urban centers requiring vast municipal services. It created a specialized and interdependent economic life and made the urban worker more completely dependent on the will of the employer than the rural worker had been.The Industrial Revolution also provided the economic base for the rise of the professions, population expansion, and improvement in living standards and remains a primary goal of less developed nations.
It also has had some negative effects. Ever since the 19th century many industrial advances have been made: more machines going to work and more trees being cut down. These machines give off greenhouse emissions causing the greenhouse effect. But thanks to all the other events in time like the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, new advances are being created that will hopefully help with present problems which should make for a brighter future and global economy.

WORK CITED
http://www.questiaschool.com/read/101250700
http://www.exampleessays.com/viewpaper/16353.html
www.wikipedia.com
www.wikianswers.com
www.yahooanswers.com


TAYLOR MCKINNEY(Page Creater/Researcher), LAURA DENNINGS(Researcher/Page Editor), SAMI PERSINGER(Researcher)